These concepts can be introduced during the parsha. It’s important to take the time necessary, and let the child explore at their own pace.
Avram’s name is changed to Avraham – “This is my covenant with you.. Your name shall be Avraham for I have made you the father of a multitude of nations.. I will establish my covenant with you and your descendants for a G-d”
• Gematria- אברהם = limbs of the body 248 “all 248 limbs of your body should be perfect”
• Learning about the human body that correspond to the 248 positive mitzvot
(continue from creation of Adam from Breishis)
The Human Body:
The skeletal and Muscular Systems
There’s a system to everything. Hashem said, “Let us make man “Adam” in our mold” obviously Hashem does not have a body or a “skeletal system” and He does not have to consult others about His creation. He was trying to tell us something deeper here, we are a system, a “team” that works together in kindness and respect. Hashem made us so perfect, that even in creating our inner physical bodies he made it according to His teaching.
• When different parts of your body work together to perform a specific job, that group of parts is called a system. Our bodies are made up of many different systems.
• Your bones make up your skeletal system. Your muscles make up your muscular system. Together these systems let your body move.
The skeletal System
Have a plastic model of the skeletal system when presenting
• We have many types of bones in our body. Some are large and long, like those in your legs, some are small and short, like those in your fingers. Were else do we have long or short bones?
• Bones can be curvy or flat like your skull. Your bones fit together to give your body shape and help you stand tall.
• If you had no bones you would sag to the floor
• Your bones fit together at joints, without joints you would not be able to move or bend
• Bones need to be strong to protect important organs inside your body; your ribs protect your heart and lungs, your skull protects your brain.
Muscles and bones
• Muscles and bones work together to move your body, Muscles even help move food and blood around inside your body. They make your lungs breathe and your heart beat. When any part of your body moves, your muscles are working.
• Your muscles are attached to your bones, your muscles move your bones at their joints by pulling your bones into different positions.
• When you move, some muscles stretch and get longer, while others get shorter. When a muscle gets shorter, it pulls a bone into a new position. When it relaxes, it gets longer, and the bone goes back to its first position.
• There are two sets of muscles in your arm. The muscles on top, between your elbow and shoulders are called biceps. The muscles on bottom between your elbow and hand are called triceps.
Arm muscles at work
(Find a way to show how muscles move through an animation or a physical mechanical apparatus made with stretching rubber bands, leave this on the shelve for the child to experiment)
• Hold your arm out straight with your palm up, bend your arm to make a muscle, Which muscle gets shorter, the one on the top or bottom? (The top muscle or bicep) Which muscle gets longer? (The bottom muscle or tricep) Which muscle pulled your arm bone up, the top or bottom muscle? ( The top muscle or bicep) Straighten your arm again. Now which muscle gets shorter? ( The bottom muscle or tricep) Which gets longer? (The top muscle or bicep) Which muscle pulled your arm bone down? ( The bottom muscle or tricep)
• Bones fit together to make our skeleton
• Our skeleton hold us up and gives us shape
• Bones protect our bodies. Our skull protects our brains, our ribs protect our lungs and heart
• Muscles and bones work together to help us move
• Bones meet at joints
• Muscles are attached to bones
• Muscles lengthen and shortened to move bones at the joints
The Digestive System
• Our digestive system breaks down the food we eat into tiny pieces. The mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines work together in the process of digestion. Your body uses the digested food to get the energy you need to run, to jump, to think…
• Digestion begins in the mouth; when you eat, your front teeth break off a bite, your back teeth grind the bite into smaller pieces. you swallow it, traveling down a long tube that connects your mouth to your stomach called the “esophagus”.
• When food gets to your esophagus it enters your stomach. Your stomach is a sort of stretchy sack that is shaped like a bean. liquids in your stomach. called digestive fluids, mix with the food you swallowed and help break the food into even smaller pieces. It takes a few hours for your stomach to squeeze and mash your food until it is the texture of soup.
• Next, the soupy mixture squeezes out of your stomach into your small intestine, a long tube coiled up like a pile of rope. Your small intestine breaks food into even smaller pieces that your body can use to make energy. The parts that your body cannot use go on to your large intestine. You get rid of the waste, or undigested food when you use the restroom.
– Use a measuring tape and a rope to show how long your small intestines are..
• Your mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines make up your digestive system.
• Digestion begins in your mouth as your teeth bite and grind up food.
• The esophagus is a long tube that joins your mouth and stomach.
• Food travels from your mouth to your esophagus to your stomach.
• The stomach is a stretchy sack that squeezes and mashes your food until is has the texture of thick soup
• Your small intestine breaks down the food into tiny pieces, and your body makes energy from the food
• Food your body cannot use goes into your large intestine as waste.
The Circulatory and Respiratory System
• If you put your hand on your chest, you can hear your heart beating. Your heart is a muscle, it is about the size of your fist and is located a little bit left of the center of your chest. It’s job is to circulate blood, moving it all through your body. It does this with the help of “blood vessels” these are tiny pipes that allow the blood to flow in and out of your heart, and from there to all the different parts of your body.
• The beat you feel in your chest is your heart filling up with blood and emptying out again, over and over. Your heart does this all day and night. unlike other muscles, it never gets tired. It takes about 20 seconds for your heart to pump blood to every part of your body.
• Put you hand on your chest again , feel your chest moving up and down as you breathe, when you breath in through your nose and mouth, your lungs fill up with oxygen. When you breath out your lungs empty again. Your body needs oxygen to stay alive. The blood traveling through your body is filled with oxygen. When you breath in, your heart pumps blood into your lungs to pick up the fresh oxygen. From there the blood carries the fresh oxygen everywhere. Your respiratory system and your circulatory system work together to keep you going.
• Air is a mixture of different gases, and oxygen is one of those gases. We get rid of another gas, carbon dioxide, each time we breathe out. When we exercise our heart pumps faster, we breath more quickly because our bodies need more oxygen to keep going.
• Your heart is a strong muscle that pumps blood to all parts of your body
• Your blood travels through blood vessels
• Your blood carries oxygen that your body needs to stay alive
• Your get oxygen by breathing in air. When you breath in, your lungs fill up, emptying again as you breathe out.
• As you breathe in, your heart pumps blood into your lungs to pick up the fresh oxygen. From there the blood carries the fresh oxygen to your entire body.
The Nervous System
• Your nervous system is made up of your brain, your spinal cord, and your nerves. It controls all the actions of your body, from waiving and writing to pumping your heart and taking a breath.
• Your brain sends messages up and down your spinal cord to many different nerves. The nerves carry those messages back and forth to all parts of your body. So it is your brain, by way of your nervous system, that tells your arm how to move. Your brain also helps you think and remember.
• Your brain sends messages from your head all over your body. It directs messages up and down your spinal cord and through your nerves to your fingers and toes. Those nerves quickly carry your brain’s messages everywhere in your body.
• Your brain is the most important part of your body. It makes your whole body work, it tells your muscles to move, it controls your feelings, your memory, and the way you think.
• The brain is soft and fragile, It is protected by the skull. Your spinal cord is protected by the bones in your spine.
• Playing memory games; The more you use your brain to think, the better your memory becomes.
• Set some objects under a blanket, lift the blanket and show the objects, let the child try to remember each object
• remove one of the objects while the child’s eyes are closed. Let them figure out which object is missing.
• Your nervous system is made up of your brain, your spinal cord, and your nerves.
• Your brain makes your whole body work. It is the body’s most important part. Without your brain you could not live.
• Your brain sends messages up and down your spinal cord to nerves that carry those messages back and forth to all parts of your body.
• Your brain controls all thoughts, memories, and feelings.